Australia, Britain, Canada and the United States have imposed outright bans on Russian oil purchases following Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine, but members of the European Union are split. EU foreign ministers failed to agree on Monday on sanctioning Russian gas and oil supplies, which account for 40% and 27% of the bloc’s total use of those commodities respectively. Germany, the EU’s top user of Russian crude oil and the Netherlands, a key trading hub, argue that the EU couldn’t cut its dependence on Russian supplies overnight.
Hungary opposed a ban on Russian energy imports, while Bulgaria said it may seek an exemption if such a ban is approved. Some landlocked refineries in Eastern Europe and Germany are almost completely dependent on Russian crude supplies via pipelines. Other buyers in Europe and elsewhere, however, shunned Russian crude voluntarily to avoid reputational damage or possible legal difficulty.
Outside the EU, China and India, which have refused to criticize Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, continued to buy Russia oil, as well as Turkey, which is seeking to mediate between Kyiv and Moscow.
The following lists major takers of Russian crude:
Bulgarian refinery, owned by Russia’s Lukoil, and with Russian crude accounting to about 60% of its total intake, continues to refine Russian crude.
Russian crude continues to account for about 14% of the intake at Germany’s largest refinery, Miro, which is 24% owned by Rosneft..
Germany’s refinery, 54% owned by Rosneft, receives crude oil via the Druzhba pipeline.
The land-locked Leuna refinery in eastern Germany, majority-owned by TotalEnergies, is also fed Russian crude by the Druzhba pipeline.
Greece’s biggest oil refiner is relying on Russian crude for about 15% of its intake. The company earlier this month secured additional supplies from Saudi Arabia.
Italy’s largest refinery, owned by Lukoil-controlled Swiss-based Litasco SA, processes Russian and non-Russian crudes.
The Hungarian oil group, which operates three refineries in Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia, continues to be supplied by the Druzhba pipeline. Hungary is opposed to sanctions on Russian oil and gas.
Poland’s largest refiner, which continues to buy Russian crude for its refineries in Lithuania, Poland and the Czech Republic, said it was preparing for a complete halt. Lithuania has said it planned to stop using Russian oil and gas.
The Dutch refinery, 45%-owned by Lukoil, declined to comment on whether it was using Russian crude oil.
Exxon Mobil declined to comment on whether its Dutch refinery in Rotterdam was using Russian crude oil.
India’s state refiner bought 2 million barrels of Russian Urals for May loading, according to trading sources last week.
India’s top refiner has bought 3 million barrels of Urals for May delivery, trade sources said.
The following lists those that have stopped buying Russian oil:
The British oil major, which is abandoning its stake in Rosneft, will not enter new deals with Russian entities for loading at Russian ports, unless “essential for ensuring security of supplies”.
Japan’s biggest refiner has stopped buying crude oil from Russia, while some cargoes signed under previous agreements will arrive in Japan until around April.
he energy group, 30.3% owned by the Italian government, is suspending purchases of Russian oil.
No Russian crude will be used at Germany’s Bayernoil refinery, in which Eni and Rosneft have stakes.
Norway’s majority state-owned energy firm has stopped trading Russian oil as it winds down its operations in the country.
The Portuguese oil and gas company has suspended all new purchases of petroleum products from Russia or Russian companies.
The Finnish refiner has Russian oil contracts until the end of the year, but is not making any new supply agreements.
Sweden’s largest refiner, owned by Saudi billionaire Mohammed Hussein al-Amoudi, has “paused” new orders of Russian crude, which accounted for around 7% of its purchases, replacing them with North Sea barrels.
The Spanish company has stopped buying Russian crude oil in the spot market.
The world’s largest petroleum trader will stop buying Russian crude and phase out its involvement in all Russian hydrocarbons.
The French company has stopped buying oil from Russia, although one of its land-locked refineries in Germany continues to receive Russian crude by pipeline.
The Swiss refiner, which owns 51.4% in Germany’s Bayernoil refinery, said it did not plan to enter into new deals to buy Russian crude.
(Reporting by Reuters bureaux; Compiled by Nerijus Adomaitis and Shadia Nasralla; Editing by Kirsten Donovan, Barbara Lewis and Susan Fenton)
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